How currency control is carried out in 2022

If you conclude contract with a non-resident in the amount of more than 3 rubles, you have an obligation to transfer to the authorized bank information on the concluded contract, namely, the date of the contract, contract number, amount, information about the counterparty.

Until 01.03.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX, information on foreign economic currency transactions was taken into account in transaction passports. Transaction passport issued for each international contract in the amount of more than 50 USD. The currency control procedure was carried out in accordance with Federal Law No. 000-FZ and Bank of Russia Instruction No. 173-I.

From 01.03.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX, the transaction passport was abolished as it entered into force Instruction of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation No. 181-I dated 16.08.2017/XNUMX/XNUMX, establishing other requirements for the regulation of export-import operations.

The new rules changed the interaction with banks and accelerated settlements with counterparties, as a result, there were some changes, a few of them are listed below:

  • Documents are processed faster. Previously, it took 3 days to issue a transaction passport + 2 days to send it to a resident. Now the bank registers the contract within one business day.
  • Reduced registration denials. The requirements for filling out the contract have decreased, but it has become mandatory that the date of performance of obligations is indicated in the contract.
  • Changed threshold amount for control. Previously it was $50. According to the new rules, transactions after 000 rubles are subject to registration, which, of course, is worse than before.
  • The burden in terms of currency control was redistributed on the credit institution. This reduces the risk of penalties being imposed on the participant. FEA.

How are foreign trade contracts now controlled?

Instead of issuing a transaction passport, banks now register a contract and assign it  UNK - unique contract number, in fact, this is the same set of numbers that was in the transaction passport. The UNK number is encoded, hovering over the desired part of the number you will see hints with explanations.  XX  XX   XXXX / XXXX / XXXX / Х / Х

All transactions are subject to currency control, but the reporting procedure differs depending on the type and price of the contact.

If the import or export contract does not exceed 200 thousand rubles, it is not necessary to register and submit its original to the bank. A certificate of a foreign exchange transaction is also not required, it is enough to provide a code, however, some banks still ask foreign economic activity participants to issue a certificate, as this is a convenient unified form of providing data to the bank. However, the bank has the right to request documents if suspicions arise or it receives a request from the Central Bank.

For import and export contracts ranging from 200 thousand to 3 rubles, a unique number is not assigned. It is necessary to send any document to the bank that allows you to put down the operation code. It can be a contract, an annex to a contract, invoice, act, invoice, other documents on the transaction. It is better to check the specific list with the servicing bank.

Export contracts ranging from RUB 3 to RUB 000 have similar requirements. The contract or other document is submitted to the bank, but the contract is not registered.

Import contracts in the amount of 3 to 000 rubles and lending contracts, for which registration is required, you must provide the original contract to the bank. After the completion of the transaction, the company's accountant must prepare certificate of supporting documents - SPD. In the case of Import of goods, it is enough to indicate the number of the declaration in it

The following documents may be included in the SOP:

  • declaration for goods, application for conditional release;
  • transportation, shipping documents;
  • acceptance certificates, invoices;
  • other commercial, accounting documentation.

A certificate of supporting documents is issued within 15 days after the last day of the month in which the date of issue was marked on the documents used as a customs declaration.

For import and export contracts over 6 rubles, the registration and assignment of the UNC, as well as the submission of the SPD are a prerequisite. The requirements are the same as for contracts of more than 000 million rubles for imports.

The procedure for registering contacts and maintaining it

  1. An application is made to register the contract in the form of a bank.
    • The resident must register the currency transaction agreement within the following terms
      • Transfer of currency from a non-resident -15 working days from the date of enrollment
      • Write-off in favor of a non-resident - Until the date on which the write-off order is given
      • Settlements through a resident's account in a non-resident bank - 30 days after the month when funds are debited and credited
      • Import, export of declared goods - At the time of filing the declaration with the customs authority
      • Import, export of undeclared goods - 15 days from the last day of the month in which supporting documents are submitted
      • Performance of work, provision of services, transfer of results of intellectual activity - 15 days after the end of the month when the documents are issued
      • Other cases - By the timing of the provision of SPD
  2. The bank checks the documents and registers the contract within 1 business day. Another 1 day is required to assign a unique number to the agreement.
    • Several UNCs can be assigned to one contract if it contains the terms of different currency transactions - for example, there are signs of a loan agreement and a supply agreement.
    • The bank also opens a bank control sheet for the contract and stores it electronically.
  3. The bank notifies of the assignment of the UNK - usually by a message in your personal account. From this moment, you can start working on the contract.
    • When the transaction is completed, the FEA participant reports to the bank with closing documents.