Glossaries

The number of entries in this glossary is 280.
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Glossaries

Term Definition
Freight

Cost cargo delivery by water.

freight charges stipulated by contract or law. Freight how the charge for the carriage of goods primarily relates to carriage under a voyage charter or charter agreement, since in the time charter and especially in the bareboat charter, the subject of the agreement is not the carriage of cargo, but the lease of the vessel. Paid to the carrier by the shipper or charterer.

Directly shipping the cargo on a chartered ship, as well as contract for transportation, including a description of the cargo, carrier's duties and fees.

The size of the freight is established by agreement of the parties. In the absence of an agreement of the parties, the freight amount shall be calculated based on the rates applied at the place of loading of the cargo and during loading of the cargo. If cargo loaded on a ship in a larger quantity than stipulated by the contract, the size of the freight increases accordingly.

In commercial water transport, the term freight often refers to the cost of transporting one ton of cargo. Accordingly, in the event that the charterer does not ensure the loading of the minimum amount of cargo specified in the charter / voyage charter agreement, the shipowner has the right to charge the charterer with "dead freight", compensating the shipowner for lost profits.

With the development of the global transport system, the concept of freight has spread to air. Freight) and land Freight) transport.

Number of views - 11082
Synonyms - freight
Transport logistics

A system for organizing delivery, moving any material objects, substances, etc. from one point to another along the optimal route. One of the fundamental directions of the science of managing information and material flows in the process of goods movement. The optimal route is considered to be the route along which it is possible to deliver a logistics facility in the shortest possible time (or within the stipulated time frame) with minimal costs, as well as with minimal damage to the delivery facility. Harm for the delivery object is considered to be a negative impact on the logistics object both from external factors (conditions of transportation) and from the time factor when delivering objects that fall into this category.

Number of views - 7380
Transport of dangerous goods

The set of organizational and technological operations for the movement of dangerous goods by rail, road, water, air and other modes of transport or a combination of these types of transport

Number of views - 6929
Dangerous goods

Substances, materials and products that have properties that, when transported, may cause an explosion and (or) fire, cause death, illness, injury, poisoning, radiation or burns of people and (or) animals, as well as damage means, other objects of transportation and (or) harm the environment. Transportation of such goods is carried out in accordance with the special conditions of transport.

Number of views - 9205
Synonyms - HAZARDOUS GOODS
Multimodal transport operator
Carrier, responsible for all transportation of goods performed by multimodal transportation.
Number of views - 7994
Synonyms - MTO
Multimodal transportation

Transportation of goods performed by at least two types of transport under one contract. The carrier is responsible for all transportation, even if this transportation is carried out by different types of transport (for example: by sea, rail, road, etc.). The carrier does not necessarily have to have all modes of transport. Such transportation is often carried out by sub-carriers (in the law of the sea, called actual carriers).

Number of views - 6974
Intermodality

The possibility of changing the mode (mode) of transportation (ships, railway transport and vehicles) without the need to unload / load the contents of the container.

Number of views - 9736
Synonyms - intermodal
Demurrage

Penalty, penalty paid to the owner of the container / vessel / vehicle for use in excess of the standard time specified in the contract.

In merchant shipping, monetary damages, payment due to the carrier for the demurrage of the vessel during the counter-lay time. The amount of demurrage is determined by agreement of the parties, or according to the rates adopted in the respective port. In the absence of such rates, the amount of payment for the demurrage of the vessel is determined by the costs of maintaining the vessel and its crew.

In sea container transportation, this is a payment for excess (over free time) use of container equipment during the time from the moment the container is unloaded from the vessel until it is returned to the port, or until it is transferred to export mode. Paid to the owner of the container. 

Number of views - 9897
Synonyms - demeurer
Cargo

A certain amount of goods, plants, plant products and / or other materials in the carriage (the cargo can be composed of one or more goods or consignments). The cargo can be groupage, for example, when transporting one container or car of cargo of several owners.

Cargo classified

  • in appearance (live or non-living)
  • by way of transportation (sea, river, rail, road, air)
  • by weight (the load exerted on the cargo transferring device)
  • in shape (physical size (dimensions))
  • by state of aggregation (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma)
  • on the terms of packaging and storage (piece, bulk, bulk, bulk, container, etc.)
  • by shelf life for use (perishable)
  • on the microclimatic regime (special requirements for temperature, humidity, pressure, atmospheric composition, air quality)
  • in terms of danger to health, life and the environment (toxic (poisonous), biologically hazardous (infectious), explosive, flammable, flammable, radioactive, etc.)

Live cargo includes animals, birds, plants, bacteria and other living organisms; There are special requirements for their transportation.

Number of views - 12116
WM
The basis for the accrual of freight. Weight or volume is applied depending on which indicator (weight or volume) is larger.   
Number of views - 8247
Wharfage

Fee for a berth, a fee levied by sea carriers to cover fees levied by the administration of the berth and / or port.

It is a fee solely for the use of the pier and does not include a fee for any other services.

Number of views - 2387
WDF
Weight Discrepancy Fee. This fee applies when the actual weight of the container accepted at the terminal differs from the weight specified in the documentation. The fee covers administrative amendments, as well as changes in loading conditions and chassis requirements.
Number of views - 8586
WAY BILL
Consignment note. Contract of carriage, as well as bill of lading, a document confirming the fact of acceptance of the cargo by the carrier for carriage by sea and the obligation to transfer it to the consignee at the port of destination.
Number of views - 11318
WAREHOUSE
Place for receiving delivery consolidation of distribution and storage of goods / goods.
Number of views - 10698
VOYAGE CHARTER
The contract by which the shipowner places the ship at the disposal of the charterer for one or more voyages the shipowner is responsible for the operation of the ship.
Number of views - 9079
VGM

Confirmation of container weight prior to loading for all international shipping containerized cargo. Mandatory requirement to provide a "verified" weight of the loaded container.

In accordance with the amendment introduced to improve the safety of navigation to Chapter VI "Carriage of goods and liquid fuels" of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - MK SOLAS, from July 01, 2016 in accordance with Rule 2 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS ) imposes on shippers, when transporting containers, the obligation to either weigh the packed container using calibrated and certified equipment, or weigh the contents of the container with the addition of the empty container weight.

In any case, VGM must be fixed by the carrier. Failure to comply with this requirement entails a sanction under the SOLAS Convention that the container “must not be loaded onto a ship”, see paragraph 4.2, MSC1 / Circ.1475 (adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

According to the rules, the mass of the container must be checked (certified) by the shipper by weighing the loaded container, or by weighing the units / packages loaded into the container, which will be packed in the container, followed by summing their mass with the empty container mass.

Shipper must, no later than 24 (twenty-four) hours before the planned departure of the vessel, provide the forwarder with reliable information received in the following amounts:

  • verified weight of the loaded container (cargo weight together with container container, hereinafter - VGM);
  • weighing method information (1 or 2);
  • name of the company that performed the weighing;
  • information about the person who signed the weighing certificate (full name, position).

Additionally, we draw your attention to the fact that due to the increase in cases of weighing containers in the port of Vladivostok, reliable information about the weight of the cargo in the container significantly reduces the time and financial costs incurred by the owner of the cargo if a discrepancy is found between the weight data in the bill of lading and the weighing act.

If there is a discrepancy in 500 kg from the declared mass in any direction, the customs will put the container at 100% inspection with weighing the contents of the container.

Number of views - 7291
Synonyms - Checking the weight of loaded containers
VET
Veterinary Certificate Services. Carrier assistance service on demand for veterinary certification on behalf of the client, for containers that are sent to ground points and contain cargo of animal origin. Due to the frequent passage of this
Number of views - 9158
VESSEL MANIFEST
Number of views - 8821
VAT
Value Added Tax. The carrier pays value added tax (VAT) local authorities, and these costs are borne by the client. Applicable to all deliveries for which VAT is required.
Number of views - 7812
VARIABLE COST
Number of views - 8557
VALUATION CHARGES

Additional insurance fee (shipping costs) charged under the contract with the consignor, if the declared (declared) value of the goods exceeds the amount covered by the carrier within its responsibility.

Number of views - 6620
ULI

The port export agent remuneration, which ensures the work in the port, including but not limited to the following:

  • customs clearance of the vessel,
  • filling in customs documents,
  • cooperation with other authorities,
  • inspection reports,
  • terminal costs.
Number of views - 8390
Synonyms - Agency Logistic Fee Import
ULE

A port agency import fee that covers intra-port work, including but not limited to the following:

  • customs clearance of the vessel,
  • filling in customs documents,
  • cooperation with other authorities,
  • inspection reports,
  • terminal costs.
Number of views - 9095
Synonyms - Agency Logistics Fee Export
TRANSSHIPMENT

A condition according to which the sea carrier has the right to unload the cargo or any part of it from the vessel, store it ashore, transfer it to another vessel, regardless of whether it belongs to the carrier or not.

Liability can pass from one carrier to another, or it can be recorded through a bill of lading to the first carrier.

It is used to change the shipping line in the transit port for delivery from / to the port not served by the line directly. 

Number of views - 8047
Synonyms - TRANSSHIPMENT
TRANSMITTAL LETTER
A letter from the sender to his agent who lists the detailed information about the cargo documents are transmitted as well as instructions for the disposal of these documents.
Number of views - 10422
TRANSIT TIME

This is the planned travel time from port to port. This travel time is based on the collected figures, but it cannot be considered as a fact. She may deviate in unforeseen circumstances. Transit time may change, especially when the destination is not reached directly, but through (several) nodes.

Number of views - 10433
Synonyms - TT
TRAMP SERVICE
Ships operating without a fixed route or schedule or charter agreement.
Number of views - 10238
TRACKING
The carrier system records the intervals of movement of shipments from source to destination.
Number of views - 7924
TRACING
Determining the location of the consignment during the movement.
Number of views - 10383
TONNAGE

Measure of cargo capacity of the vessel. The term comes from taxation paid on barrels or barrels of wine. In modern maritime use "tonnage"Specifically refers to the calculation of the volume or volume of the cargo of the vessel The tonnage should not be confused with the displacement, which refers to the actual weight of the vessel.

Tonnage is commonly used to estimate charges for commercial delivery.

The tonnage measurements are governed by the IMO Convention on the tonnage measurement of 1969 ships of the year (London Rules), which applies to all ships built after July 1982 of the year.

Number of views - 10561
Synonyms - tonnage
TON-MILE
Output is a measure of freight transportation which reflects the weight of the shipment and the distance the carrier tows it
Number of views - 11794
TLX
Electronic Cargo Release Service. This service is called "Telex" or "Express" release and allows you to release the goods at destination after confirming the identity of the recipient as the consignee, provided that all 3 are original B / L were delivered to the consignee
Number of views - 7902
TLI
Electronic Cargo Release Service - Import. TLI - electronic release - Import.
Number of views - 7013
TLE
Electronic Cargo Release Service - Export. TLE - electronic release - Export.
Number of views - 10146
TKL
The condition of transportation upon departure / arrival. Means that forwarder assumes responsibility for the organization of transportation from / to the handling equipment at the port of departure / destination; The cost of transportation includes, in addition to freight, loading / unloading from / to
Number of views - 9522
THC
Terminal handling is original. Any services of a cargo handling terminal: loading / unloading from a ship, moving to a pile, exhibiting for work, etc. In practice, the following understanding of this term has developed handling services
Number of views - 9948
TEU

The Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit is a unit of measure equal to the volume occupied by a standard 20-foot container. Used in calculating the capacity of container ships or storage locations of containers.

Number of views - 10906
TCI
Temporary Customs Service-Import. The service, in which the carrier pays the costs of temporary customs clearance of the container (not cargo) on behalf of the client, and then the costs are borne by the client. This service is available upon request.
Number of views - 8655
TCE
Temporary Customs Service- Export. The service, in which the carrier pays the costs of temporary customs clearance of the container (not cargo) on behalf of the client, and then the costs are borne by the client. This service is available upon request.
Number of views - 7809
TAX
Government and Port Tax Service. Carrier pays taxes local authorities on behalf of the client, and the costs are borne by the client. This fee depends on local laws and will be added to the cost of the related port works.
Number of views - 8160
TARIFF
A document issued by the carrier stating the applicable rules for rates and charges for the movement of goods. The document establishes a contract of carriage between the consignor, the consignee and the carrier.
Number of views - 9176
TARE WEIGHT
Vehicle weight when it is empty.
Number of views - 9251
T1D
T1 Documentation Fee. This fee is intended to cover the costs associated with issuing T1 documentation. The T1 documentation is required for taxation in the European Union when transporting goods of non-European origin between the two points of the EU customs zone. At
Number of views - 8731
SURCHARGE
Charge additions for applicable car carrier fees have fuel surcharges and railways may apply surcharges to any joint rate that is not inferior to 110 percent of variable costs.
Number of views - 12151
STUFFING
Stuffing. Container loading.
Number of views - 11699
STOWAGE
Placing goods on the vessel in such a way as to ensure the safety and stability of the vessel not only on the sea or ocean passage but also between the ports when parts of the cargo were loaded or discharged.
Number of views - 9494
STEVEDORE
Individual or a firm that uses movers and who contracts to load or unload a ship.
Number of views - 11432
SPOT VOYAGE
Number of views - 9381
SPECIAL CUSTOMS INVOICE
In addition to the commercial invoice, some countries require a special customs invoice designed to simplify the processing of goods and assess customs duties in this country.
Number of views - 8501
SPC
Container Stuffing / Stripping Service. This service is offered to the client, according to her the carrier performs the unloading or filling of the client's container in the port area. This service is available upon request.
Number of views - 10347
SOC
Container owned sender
Number of views - 8782
SHIPPING REQUEST
Shipping instructions are the basis for filling the bill of lading. SOC Container is the property of the sender (client). 
Number of views - 7328
SHIPPER SENDER
Person actually or nominally provides cargo for transportation, and give instructions to the carrier. 
Number of views - 8035
SHIP BROKER
A firm that acts as an intermediary between the owner of the tramp vessel and the freight shipper or consignee.
Number of views - 9785
SHIP AGENT
The company is an intermediary that facilitates the arrival of the vessel, clearance loading and unloading and payment for port services.
Number of views - 9963
SERVICE CONTRACT
Number of views - 9280
SERVICE
The regular structure of calls made by the carrier in the pickup and unloading of cargo is determined.
Number of views - 9193
SEPARABLE COST
The costs that a company can assign directly to a specific business segment.
Number of views - 8462
SEA WAYBILL

Transport document. The sea waybill indicates 'on board' the loading of goods and can be used in cases where the sea bill of lading is not required, i.e. there is no title deed. to receive the goods, the presentation of the sea waybill for the consignee specified in it is not required, which allows you to speed up the processing at the port of destination.

Number of views - 11385
SCRAP MATERIAL
Unavailable material that has no market value.
Number of views - 7281
SALVAGE MATERIAL
Unused material that has a market value and can be sold.
Number of views - 11340
SAFETY STOCK
The company conducts an inventory outside of normal requirements as a buffer against delays in receiving orders or changes in the customer’s purchase structure.
Number of views - 9603
ROLLING CARGO
Cargo that is on wheels such as a truck or trailers and that can be run or towed to a ship.
Number of views - 7778
RO-RO SHIP
Number of views - 7948
RFM
reefer Monitoring / Plug-in Service. The service provided by the carrier to track deliveries with a certain temperature regime, including checking temperature parameters and checking equipment malfunctions. This service is used whenever
Number of views - 7497
REVENUE TON

Revenue Ton - is a delivery term that describes the dimension on which the cargo is chartered. If the cargo is estimated as weight or measure, then no matter what income it brings, a ton of revenue will be considered. Weight is based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters. 1 RT = 1 ton or 1 m3.

Number of views - 7561
RETURN CARGO
Cargo that allows the ship to return loaded to the port or area where its previous cargo was loaded.
Number of views - 8019
RELEASE APPROVAL
Document to advise that the goods are available for further movement or action.
Number of views - 7579
REEFER
Container with autonomous refrigeration unit used to transport perishable goods.
Number of views - 10465
RECONSIGNMENT
The service carrier which allows the shipper to change the destination and / or the consignee after shipment reached its originally billed destination and still pay the rate from the point of departure to the final destination.
Number of views - 8080
RATE BASIS POINT
The main point of shipment in the local area carriers should consider all points in the local area to provide a base point rate.
Number of views - 9281
RAIL WAYBILL

Bill of lading by rail carriers for their clients.

The document used for transportation by rail. The document is prepared by the agent or the railway line, which will transport the goods, after receiving shipping instructions from the consignor. The draft railway consignment note is sent to the shipper for accepting and sending the specified conditions, after which the originals are issued.

Below you can see a list of information included in the railway bill instructions:

Number of views - 8701
Synonyms - Railway invoice
PURCHASE ORDER
Number of views - 8091
PTI
Pre-Trip Inspection Service. This service is offered by the carrier and implies additional verification of the temperature of containers with certain work experience to ensure that the container is in working condition and ready for transportation.
Number of views - 8416
PSI

Pre Shipment Inspection - pre-shipment check of the manufactured goods for compliance with the declared requirements, quality and quantity standards. Pre-shipment inspection is effective after the end of production when at least 80% of the batch is packed. Checked in accordance with the specification, aspects such as: general, appearance, product functions, size, labeling, packaging and so on.

Number of views - 9792
Synonyms - Pre Shipment Inspection
PRO-FORMA
Type of offer or offer that can be used when first negotiating the sale of goods or services. if the proforma is accepted then the terms and conditions of the pro forma may become a request.
Number of views - 7693
PRO FORMA INVOICE
The invoice is sent by the seller of the goods before shipment, which advises the buyer of the information and cost of the goods. usually required by the buyer to obtain an import permit or letter of credit.
Number of views - 7998
PREPAID FREIGHT
Freight shipping is paid by the shipper to the carrier when product filed for shipment which is not returned if the goods are not received for the intended purpose.
Number of views - 8395
Pre-carriage

Delivery of cargo from the place of its receipt to the place of loading by the carrier to the main means of transportation. The section of the path that the product needs to overcome to get from the warehouse to the seaport corresponds EXW-C/ Y.

Number of views - 9413
Synonyms - Prikeridzh
PPI

Pre Production Inspection - verification of materials and raw materials for the production of goods. During the inspection, raw materials, materials, components, production lines are checked, and samples of manufactured products are obtained.

Number of views - 7694
Synonyms - Pre Production Inspection
PORT STATE CONTROL
Number of views - 10366
PORT OF LOADING
Loading port. 
Number of views - 9682
POD
Discharge port. 
Number of views - 8573
PIO
Pick-Up / Drop-Off Service. The service provided by the carrier for receiving or transferring empty containers to a container base other than that indicated in the bill of lading as a place of acceptance / delivery where ground delivery is required by the client. Usl
Number of views - 7331
PHY
Phytosanitary Certificate Service. A service in which the carrier, upon request, provides assistance with a certification authorized by the government on behalf of the client. Certification confirms that transported fruits and / or vegetables comply with applicable requirements
Number of views - 9585
PCF
Port construction fee. Expenses approved by local government in China.
Number of views - 9441
PARTIAL CONTAINERSHIPS
Multi-purpose container ships where one or more but not all compartments are equipped with stationary container cells. the remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.
Number of views - 7825
PALLET WRAPPING MACHINE
A machine that wraps the contents of the pallet in a stretch film to ensure safe transportation.
Number of views - 9594
PALLET
Number of views - 11410
PAI
Port Additionals / Port Dues - Import. Intermediary service for the payment of various port costs paid by the carrier and compensated by the client. The carrier is familiar with the requirements of the port authorities, which can save the client time and save him from
Number of views - 7872
PAE
Port Additionals / Port Dues - Export. Intermediary service for the payment of various port costs paid by the carrier and compensated by the client. The carrier is familiar with the requirements of port authorities, which can save the client time and save him from
Number of views - 6070
PACKING LIST
Number of views - 10281
OVERONNAGING
The situation when there are too many ships as a rule or in one or another trade for the level of available cargo.
Number of views - 6956
OTHC
Origin terminal handling charges. Shipping costs at the port of departure
Number of views - 9357
OPEN TOP CONTAINER
The container is equipped with a solid removable roof or with a canvas roof so that the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.
Number of views - 6667
OPEN REGISTRY
The term is used instead of 'flag of convenience' or 'flag of necessity' to refer to a registry in a country that offers favorable tax regulatory and other incentives for shipowners from other countries.
Number of views - 9519
OPEN RATES
Pricing systems that are flexible and are not subject to conference approval. It is usually applied to products in which bums replace liners.
Number of views - 9132
On-carriage

Movement after the container is taken from the port / terminal, cargo transportation after the pre-run. In case of sea carriage, C / Y sea freight - CPT

Number of views - 9525
Synonyms - Onqueridge
OHC
Terminal Handling Service Origin. This service covers container handling costs at the port of origin or terminal. This service is applicable for all goods.
Number of views - 14433
OGC
Oversized cargo. 
Number of views - 6871
OFF-LOAD
Unloading cargo from the vessel.
Number of views - 8068
OFF-HIRE CLAUSE
В time charter The owner has the right for a limited time for his ship to not be from hire until the ship can be restored or dry dock.
Number of views - 11128
ODF
Documentation Fee - Origin. This service covers the creation and processing of all standard transport documents (e.g. bill of lading).
Number of views - 7843
OCEAN WAYBILL
The document issued by the shipping line to the shipper who serves to receive the goods and proof of the contract of carriage.
Number of views - 11843
NSF
No Show Fee. This fee applies to each container in a confirmed order that is not in the loading area at a specified time. This fee is also applicable when a customer (1) reduces the number of containers in an order (2) is transporting or moving a container
Number of views - 7675
NOTIFY PARTY
An abbreviation on behalf of the organization that should be notified when the shipment reaches its destination.
Number of views - 7262
NET WEIGHT
Product weight without packaging, without any containers.
Number of views - 10312
MT
Metric ton = 1000kg. 
Number of views - 8887
MODAL SPLIT
The relative usage of what companies make from the modes of transport includes statistics on passenger miles and revenue.
Number of views - 8706
MEASUREMENT TON
Forty Cubic Feet
Number of views - 9658
MBF
Manual Booking Fee. A fee covering additional administrative work of the carrier for the processing of documents received by non-electronic means. This is called manual registration. Manual registration is carried out upon receipt of documents on the following
Number of views - 9075
MARINE INSURANCE
In a broad sense, insurance covers the loss or damage to cargo at sea. marine insurance usually compensates the owner of the goods for damages from a shipwreck fire, etc. but loss excludes what can be extracted from the carrier.
Number of views - 8739
MANIFEST
A list of all goods that relate to a particular transportation grouping supplies or part of the equipment. ocean carriers will prepare a manifest will prepare a manifest for a container, etc.
Number of views - 10709
LS

Loading Supervision - check for the purpose of compliance of the shipped goods declared in the accompanying documents, compliance with loading requirements.

The inspection is carried out on the day of loading into the vehicle, during the inspection the following are checked: the exact quantity, packaging integrity, labeling, loading conditions.

At the end of the inspection, the vehicle is sealed in the presence of an inspector.

Number of views - 8270
Synonyms - Loading Supervision
LO
Linear conditions upon arrival. Conditions under which the forwarder provides the following services, the cost of which is included in the freight rate: unloading from the vessel, placement at the terminal (CY), loading onto the vehicle (auto, railway). 
Number of views - 7206
LILO FABRIC

liner in liner out. With loading and unloading - the rate includes loading at the port of departure, sea freight and unloading in the country of destination.

Loading and unloading at the expense of the shipowner

Number of views - 8400
Synonyms - LINER IN / LINER OUT
LIFO

liner in and out. With loading, but without unloading - the rate includes loading at the port of departure, sea freight, but does not include unloading at the port of destination.

Used by the shipowner, unloading by the consignor

Number of views - 14278
Synonyms - LINER IN / FREE OUT
LI
Linear conditions upon departure. The conditions under which the forwarder provides the following services, the cost of which is included in the freight rate: removal of the container from the vehicle (car, railway), placement at the terminal (CY), loading onto the ship. 
Number of views - 7889
LCL
Partial loading of the container, when each customer's lot is smaller than is required to fill the whole container and in one container in one direction on one vehicle, the cargo of several senders to the address of several recipients follows.
Number of views - 6796
Synonyms - Less Container Load
KNOWN LOSS
Loss is detected before or during shipment.
Number of views - 8485
FGKU Rosgranstroy and Yandex have implemented a project for posting up-to-date information about checkpoints across the state border of the Russian Federation on the Yandex.Maps service site.
00:25 02-12-2020 More detail ...
The Federal Tax Service has explained the specifics of the formation of cash receipts by agents.
00:05 02-12-2020 More detail ...
PFR branches throughout the country on December 14, 2020 will take part in the All-Russian Day of Reception of Citizens, which is annually held by state and regional authorities.
23:15 01-12-2020 More detail ...