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Terms of transportation

Description of terms used in the process of transportation
The number of entries in this glossary is 319.
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Glossaries

Term Definition
Sketch

Sketch placement and fastening of loads is the simplest form of fastening scheme, it is developed if the method of placement and fastening is provided for by the TU, but there is no specific scheme for the cargo of your standard size.

Export Transportation
Container transportation associated as indicated in the corresponding export waybill.
Forwarder
A person who performs or organizes the implementation of certain freight forwarding services, namely, services for organizing the carriage of goods and concluding contracts for the carriage of goods, loading and delivery of goods, etc.
Stacking
Containers placed on top of each other during storage or transport.
Stacker
Towing vehicle equipped with a frontal mechanism for stacking or moving containers. It is used mainly at terminals in seaports. It can also be in demand in the operation of logistics or sorting centers.
Freight

Shipping cost by water transport.

freight charges stipulated by contract or law. Freight how the charge for the carriage of goods primarily relates to carriage under a voyage charter or charter agreement, since in the time charter and especially in the bareboat charter, the subject of the agreement is not the carriage of cargo, but the lease of the vessel. Paid to the carrier by the shipper or charterer.

Directly shipping the cargo on a chartered ship, as well as contract for transportation, including a description of the cargo, carrier's duties and fees.

The size of the freight is established by agreement of the parties. In the absence of an agreement of the parties, the freight amount shall be calculated based on the rates applied at the place of loading of the cargo and during loading of the cargo. If cargo loaded on a ship in a larger quantity than stipulated by the contract, the size of the freight increases accordingly.

In commercial water transport, the term freight often refers to the cost of transporting one ton of cargo. Accordingly, in the event that the charterer does not ensure the loading of the minimum amount of cargo specified in the charter / voyage charter agreement, the shipowner has the right to charge the charterer with "dead freight", compensating the shipowner for lost profits.

With the development of the global transport system, the concept of freight has spread to air. Freight) and land Freight) transport.

Synonyms - freight
Flexitank
Flexible polymer capacity of up to 24 liters designed for transporting liquid cargo in a 000-foot container.
Fitting
Fitting is an obligatory element of the container design, a standard device for fastening containers on vehicles or between themselves. Fittings are usually located at the top and bottom corners of the container where twist locks or other devices can be inserted to lift the stack or secure the container. For containers whose length is not a multiple of 20 feet (for example, 45 feet), in addition to corner fittings, there is also an additional set of fittings, the space grid of which corresponds to the lattice of 20 and 40 feet containers. This allows using the same means of transportation and handling equipment during their operation.
Feeder transport
Sea transportation over a short distance between two or more ports for the purpose of grouping or distributing goods (usually containers) in one of these ports for further transportation on the high seas or after such transportation.
Extended (long wheel) fitting platform
Fitting platform designed to carry four TEUs.
Transport logistics

A system for organizing delivery, moving any material objects, substances, etc. from one point to another along the optimal route. One of the fundamental directions of the science of managing information and material flows in the process of goods movement. The optimal route is considered to be the route along which it is possible to deliver a logistics facility in the shortest possible time (or within the stipulated time frame) with minimal costs, as well as with minimal damage to the delivery facility. Harm for the delivery object is considered to be a negative impact on the logistics object both from external factors (conditions of transportation) and from the time factor when delivering objects that fall into this category.

Transit
Transportation of goods from one country to another through the territory of third countries. The question of the admission of transit and its conditions is the subject of trade agreements and agreements between individual countries. There are straight transit when the transportation of foreign goods is carried out under customs security without placing on bonded warehouse and indirect when goods arrive at customs warehouses and then abroad.
Terminal
A place equipped for transshipment and storage of containers. At JSC "Russian Railways" terminal more commonly referred to as “container site” or “container terminal”.
Time charter
Services for the implementation of sea transportation that are provided by hiring a vessel for a certain period of time for a fee called freight, usually based on a monthly rate per tonne of deadweight or a daily rate. During the agreed time frame, the charterer has the right to use the ship as he sees fit, however the shipowner continues to operate his ship with the captain and crew who remain on board.
Jib Forklift
Pneumatic lift jib lift for moving or stacking containers on a horizontal reinforced surface. According to the terminology adopted by Russian Railways, it is a heavy-duty diesel auto-loader equipped with a spreader or a tong grab for cargo operations with semi-trailers for piggyback transportation.
STK (medium-tonnage container)
The container is of an average capacity of an outdated local standard used in Russia and the countries of the former Soviet Union, created for the carriage of goods whose weight does not exceed 5 t
Standard train
The train consists of the 71 standard car and the 1 locomotive.
Estimated delivery time
Period of time during which carrier is obliged to deliver the cargo to its destination and for the observance of which he is responsible to the cargo owners. It includes the time required to transport the cargo from the point of departure to the point of destination (including for operations for its loading and unloading) to perform various auxiliary operations and paperwork. For a delay in the delivery of goods against the agreed terms, the carrier pays to the cargo owner a fine usually set as a percentage of the freight charge. In the event of emergencies and force majeure circumstances, the carrier is exempted from paying a fine for delay in delivery of goods.
Sorting Center
Central collection point, sorting, transshipment and distribution of goods for a specific region. In the practice of container transportation, Russian Railways JSC is a container point where direct wagons loaded with containers are formed. It has the same purpose as a logistics center in large places for container processing and the junction of several types of transport.
Mixed freight train
A train that consists of various types of wagons carrying different types of cargo is often sent to various destinations.
Reach stacker
A high-power loader designed to work with CPC capable of handling loads up to 45 tons. Reach stackers can handle containers in multiple rows.
Ramp
Usually an adjustable horizontal or inclined platform that allows vehicles to enter or exit a ship or railroad car. In the terminology of cargo operations of the railway transport of Russia, the term "ramp" fits this definition, and the term "ramp"Means the device at the final cargo fronts (mainly warehouses) being built at the same level with the vehicle height for ease of loading and unloading.
Empty mileage
For containers - transportation of an empty container on a platform for a platform - mileage without container (s) or any non-container cargo.
Rolling stock
Freight or passenger cars intended for railway transportation.
Transport of dangerous goods

The set of organizational and technological operations for the movement of dangerous goods by rail, road, water, air and other modes of transport or a combination of these types of transport

From door to door
A comprehensive logistics service for the delivery of goods directly from the warehouse of the consignor (supplier of goods) to the warehouse of the consignee (recipient of goods). As a rule, it includes not only rail transportation and delivery by road, but also terminal handling of cargo and, if necessary, its customs clearance and payment in accordance with INCOTERMS-2000. Appeared in response to the desire of the cargo owner to deal with the sole performer of his order.
Dangerous goods

Substances, materials and products that have properties that, when transported, may cause an explosion and (or) fire, cause death, illness, injury, poisoning, radiation or burns of people and (or) animals, as well as damage means, other objects of transportation and (or) harm the environment. Transportation of such goods is carried out in accordance with the special conditions of transport.

Synonyms - HAZARDOUS GOODS, DANGEROUS GOODS
NTU

The form of securing schemes is used if the method of securing your cargo is not provided for by the TU. In this case, in addition to the loading drawings, you must provide the carrier (Russian Railways authorities) with an explanatory note with calculations confirming the reliability of the fastening method you have developed.

Synonyms - Unforeseen Specifications
Multimodal transport operator
The carrier responsible for all transportation of goods performed by multimodal transportation.
Synonyms - MTO
Multimodal transportation

Transportation of goods performed by at least two types of transport under one contract. The carrier is responsible for all transportation, even if this transportation is carried out by different types of transport (for example: by sea, rail, road, etc.). The carrier does not necessarily have to have all modes of transport. Such transportation is often carried out by sub-carriers (in the law of the sea, called actual carriers).

MTU

Document similar to NTU.

Development MTU it is advisable for mass transportation of goods for a long period, or for the transportation of goods with a large range of standard sizes, or in the case of using specialized rolling stock (wagons).

Synonyms - Local Specifications
Marking

Signs drawings inscriptions and other symbols applied to product packaging or containers. Allows you to establish a connection between the cargo and the shipping document to distinguish one consignment from another, establishes the procedure for accounting for containers and reports on safety measures during transportation.

Logistics
The organization of the delivery chain and the management of this chain in the broadest sense. This chain can cover both the supply of raw materials necessary for production and the management of material resources in the enterprise, delivery to warehouses and distribution centers, sorting, processing and final distribution at the point of consumption. In the context of transport services, the main thing is the delivery of cargo along the route.
Liner ship
A vessel that flies between certain ports. On such a vessel can be containers with different ports of destination.
Empty run ratio
The average distance of the empty run of the platform or container divided by the average distance of the total run of the platform or container, respectively.
Container turnover
The number of containers processed at the port or at the station from the moment of arrival and before departure for a certain period of time.
Container train (block train)
A train that consists of wagons loaded with the following containers to one destination owned by the carrier or other persons. Train length and speed are established by regulatory legal acts. The train is formed at the station of departure and follows without separation along the route and without further redirection of containers.
Open top container
Container for loading through the top of various goods such as heavy equipment or oversized cargo.
Bulk Container
The container intended for the carriage of bulk cargo without additional packaging has openings for loading and unloading bulk cargo in bulk.
Intermodality

The possibility of changing the mode (mode) of transportation (ships, railway transport and vehicles) without the need to unload / load the contents of the container.

Synonyms - intermodal
Intermodal transportation
Transportation of cargo in the same cargo unit by several means of transport when one of the carriers undertakes to organize the entire transportation of cargo from door to door. Such transportation includes delivery to the warehouse of the recipient that can only be done by road.
Isothermal container (thermos container)
A special container with insulated walls, doors, floor and roof that allows you to maintain a constant temperature inside when transporting perishable goods, mainly food.
Railway junction
Usually, a railway junction means a large railway station accepting freight and passenger trains and reforming trains. Railway junction - it is a complex of sorting cargo and passenger stations that are technologically interconnected and has main connecting bypass and access roads with depot stations and its own sources of electricity. It provides for the passage of transit trains from one line to another, transferring cars between stations belonging to its composition and converging lines in it (there are usually at least three of them in a node).
Unified container transport system
The system adopted in Russia and in a number of other countries means that the cargo transported in a container will go all the way from the sender to the recipient using several modes of transport with a guarantee of integrity and safety. In order for the container transport system to act, a number of conditions must be met. The most important of these is the presence of a fleet of containers. Their size and construction should be unified, that is, they should be suitable for transportation in railway wagons by truck and in the holds of ships. In addition, they must be convenient for reloading from one vehicle to another, and in order for the crane to overload them, the containers must have special attachment devices.
DFE (twenty foot equivalent)
Conventional unit of measurement of the quantitative side of traffic flows or throughput. Equivalent to twenty feet or the dimensions of a 20ft (6-1m) ISO container. So one standard 40-foot container of the ISO series is equal to 2 TEU.
Demurrage

Penalty, penalty paid to the owner of the container / vessel / vehicle for use in excess of the standard time specified in the contract.

In merchant shipping, monetary damages, payment due to the carrier for the demurrage of the vessel during the counter-lay time. The amount of demurrage is determined by agreement of the parties, or according to the rates adopted in the respective port. In the absence of such rates, the amount of payment for the demurrage of the vessel is determined by the costs of maintaining the vessel and its crew.

In sea container transportation, this is a payment for excess (over free time) use of container equipment during the time from the moment the container is unloaded from the vessel until it is returned to the port, or until it is transferred to export mode. Paid to the owner of the container. 

Synonyms - demeurer
Shipper
An individual or legal entity that, under the contract of carriage, acts on its own behalf or on behalf of the owner of the goods or baggage and is indicated in the shipping document.
Cargo unit
Container or swap body and also loaded (empty) semi-trailer or road train. In principle, a cargo unit can be any box or package.
Cargo

A certain amount of goods, plants, plant products and / or other materials in the carriage (the cargo can be composed of one or more goods or consignments). The cargo can be groupage, for example, when transporting one container or car of cargo of several owners.

Cargo classified

  • in appearance (live or non-living)
  • by way of transportation (sea, river, rail, road, air)
  • by weight (the load exerted on the cargo transferring device)
  • in shape (physical size (dimensions))
  • by state of aggregation (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma)
  • on the terms of packaging and storage (piece, bulk, bulk, bulk, container, etc.)
  • by shelf life for use (perishable)
  • on the microclimatic regime (special requirements for temperature, humidity, pressure, atmospheric composition, air quality)
  • in terms of danger to health, life and the environment (toxic (poisonous), biologically hazardous (infectious), explosive, flammable, flammable, radioactive, etc.)

Live cargo includes animals, birds, plants, bacteria and other living organisms; There are special requirements for their transportation.

Domestic shipments
The transportation of containers whose starting and ending points (as indicated in the appropriate invoice) are located within Russia.
BIG-BAG
The replaceable container for loose freights put in the container. Used for the carriage of goods in bulk.
WM
The basis for the accrual of freight. Weight or volume is applied depending on which indicator (weight or volume) is larger.   
Wharfage

Fee for a berth, a fee levied by sea carriers to cover fees levied by the administration of the berth and / or port.

It is a fee solely for the use of the pier and does not include a fee for any other services.

WDF
Weight Discrepancy Fee. This fee applies when the actual weight of the container accepted at the terminal differs from the weight specified in the documentation. The fee covers administrative amendments, as well as changes in loading conditions and chassis requirements.
WAY BILL
Consignment note. Contract of carriage, as well as bill of lading, a document confirming the fact of acceptance of the cargo by the carrier for carriage by sea and the obligation to transfer it to the consignee at the port of destination.
WAREHOUSE
Place for receiving delivery consolidation of distribution and storage of goods / goods.
VOYAGE CHARTER
The contract by which the shipowner places the ship at the disposal of the charterer for one or more voyages the shipowner is responsible for the operation of the ship.
VGM

Confirmation of container weight prior to loading for all international shipping containerized cargo. Mandatory requirement to provide a "verified" weight of the loaded container.

In accordance with the amendment introduced to improve the safety of navigation to Chapter VI "Carriage of goods and liquid fuels" of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea - MK SOLAS, from July 01, 2016 in accordance with Rule 2 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS ) imposes on shippers, when transporting containers, the obligation to either weigh the packed container using calibrated and certified equipment, or weigh the contents of the container with the addition of the empty container weight.

In any case, VGM must be fixed by the carrier. Failure to do so will result in a sanction under the SOLAS Convention that the container 'must not be loaded on board', see 4.2, MSC1 / Circ.1475 (adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

According to the rules, the mass of the container must be checked (certified) by the shipper by weighing the loaded container, or by weighing the units / packages loaded into the container, which will be packed in the container, followed by summing their mass with the empty container mass.

Shipper must, no later than 24 (twenty-four) hours before the planned departure of the vessel, provide the forwarder with reliable information received in the following amounts:

  • verified weight of the loaded container (cargo weight together with container container, hereinafter - VGM);
  • weighing method information (1 or 2);
  • name of the company that performed the weighing;
  • information about the person who signed the weighing certificate (full name, position).

Additionally, we draw your attention to the fact that due to the increase in cases of weighing containers in the port of Vladivostok, reliable information about the weight of the cargo in the container significantly reduces the time and financial costs incurred by the owner of the cargo if a discrepancy is found between the weight data in the bill of lading and the weighing act.

If there is a discrepancy in 500 kg from the declared mass in any direction, the customs will put the container at 100% inspection with weighing the contents of the container.

Synonyms - Checking the weight of loaded containers
VET
Veterinary Certificate Services. Carrier assistance service on demand for veterinary certification on behalf of the client, for containers that are sent to ground points and contain cargo of animal origin. Due to the frequent passage of this
VESSEL MANIFEST
VAT
Value Added Tax. The carrier pays value added tax (VAT) local authorities, and these costs are borne by the client. Applicable to all deliveries for which VAT is required.
VARIABLE COST
VALUATION CHARGES

Additional insurance fee (shipping costs) charged under the contract with the consignor, if the declared (declared) value of the goods exceeds the amount covered by the carrier within its responsibility.

UN 38.3 Test Summary Report

For safety reasons, lithium batteries must undergo a UN authorized series of design tests (sub-section 38.3 of the UN Manual).

These rules do not introduce any new tests to be performed. The rules only concern the provision of information on tests already carried out by the manufacturer of lithium batteries or cells. The revised Supplement to UN Guide 38.3.5 now requires lithium battery test reports to be available in a test summary form available to the supply chain. This summary confirms that the batteries have been tested to meet the specified safety requirements.

ULI

The port export agent remuneration, which ensures the work in the port, including but not limited to the following:

  • customs clearance of the vessel,
  • filling in customs documents,
  • cooperation with other authorities,
  • inspection reports,
  • terminal costs.
Synonyms - Agency Logistic Fee Import
ULE

A port agency import fee that covers intra-port work, including but not limited to the following:

  • customs clearance of the vessel,
  • filling in customs documents,
  • cooperation with other authorities,
  • inspection reports,
  • terminal costs.
Synonyms - Agency Logistics Fee Export
TRANSSHIPMENT

A condition according to which the sea carrier has the right to unload the cargo or any part of it from the vessel, store it ashore, transfer it to another vessel, regardless of whether it belongs to the carrier or not.

Liability can pass from one carrier to another, or it can be recorded through a bill of lading to the first carrier.

It is used to change the shipping line in the transit port for delivery from / to the port not served by the line directly. 

Synonyms - TRANSSHIPMENT
TRANSMITTAL LETTER
A letter from the sender to his agent who lists the detailed information about the cargo documents are transmitted as well as instructions for the disposal of these documents.
TRANSIT TIME

This is the planned travel time from port to port. This travel time is based on the collected figures, but it cannot be considered as a fact. She may deviate in unforeseen circumstances. Transit time may change, especially when the destination is not reached directly, but through (several) nodes.

Synonyms - TT
TRAMP SERVICE
Ships operating without a fixed route or schedule or charter agreement.
TRACKING
The carrier system records the intervals of movement of shipments from source to destination.
TRACING
Determining the location of the consignment during the movement.
TONNAGE

Measure of cargo capacity of the vessel. The term comes from taxation paid on barrels or barrels of wine. In modern maritime use "tonnage"Specifically refers to the calculation of the volume or volume of the cargo of the vessel The tonnage should not be confused with the displacement, which refers to the actual weight of the vessel.

Tonnage is commonly used to estimate charges for commercial delivery.

The tonnage measurements are governed by the IMO Convention on the tonnage measurement of 1969 ships of the year (London Rules), which applies to all ships built after July 1982 of the year.

Synonyms - tonnage
TON-MILE
Output is a measure of freight transportation which reflects the weight of the shipment and the distance the carrier tows it
TLX
Electronic Cargo Release Service. This service is called "Telex" or "Express" release and allows you to release the goods at destination after confirming the identity of the recipient as the consignee, provided that all 3 are original B / L were delivered to the consignee
TLI
Electronic Cargo Release Service - Import. TLI - electronic release - Import.
TLE
Electronic Cargo Release Service - Export. TLE - electronic release - Export.
TKL
The condition of transportation upon departure / arrival. Means that forwarder assumes responsibility for the organization of transportation from / to the handling equipment at the port of departure / destination; The cost of transportation includes, in addition to freight, loading / unloading from / to
THC
Terminal treatment cargo originally. Any terminal services for handling cargo: loading / unloading from a ship, moving to a stack, exposing for work, etc. In practice, the following understanding of this term of handling services has developed
TEU

The Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit is a unit of measure equal to the volume occupied by a standard 20-foot container. Used in calculating the capacity of container ships or storage locations of containers.

TCI
Temporary Customs Service-Import. The service, in which the carrier pays the costs of temporary customs clearance of the container (not cargo) on behalf of the client, and then the costs are borne by the client. This service is available upon request.
TCE
Temporary Customs Service- Export. The service, in which the carrier pays the costs of temporary customs clearance of the container (not cargo) on behalf of the client, and then the costs are borne by the client. This service is available upon request.
TAX
Government and Port Tax Service. Carrier pays taxes local authorities on behalf of the client, and the costs are borne by the client. This fee depends on local laws and will be added to the cost of the related port works.
TARIFF
A document issued by the carrier stating the applicable rules for rates and charges for the movement of goods. The document establishes a contract of carriage between the consignor, the consignee and the carrier.
TARE WEIGHT
Vehicle weight when it is empty.
T1D
T1 Documentation Fee. This fee is intended to cover the costs associated with issuing T1 documentation. The T1 documentation is required for taxation in the European Union when transporting goods of non-European origin between the two points of the EU customs zone. At
SURCHARGE
Charge additions for applicable car carrier fees have fuel surcharges and railways may apply surcharges to any joint rate that is not inferior to 110 percent of variable costs.
STUFFING
Stuffing. Container loading.
STOWAGE
Placing goods on the vessel in such a way as to ensure the safety and stability of the vessel not only on the sea or ocean passage but also between the ports when parts of the cargo were loaded or discharged.
STEVEDORE
Individual or a firm that uses movers and who contracts to load or unload a ship.
SPOT VOYAGE
SPC
Container Stuffing / Stripping Service. This service is offered to the client, according to her the carrier performs the unloading or filling of the client's container in the port area. This service is available upon request.
SOC
Container owned sender
SHIPPING REQUEST
Shipping instructions are the basis for filling the bill of lading. SOC Container is the property of the sender (client). 
SHIPPER SENDER
Person actually or nominally provides cargo for transportation, and give instructions to the carrier. 
SHIP BROKER
A firm that acts as an intermediary between the owner of the tramp vessel and the freight shipper or consignee.
SHIP AGENT
The company is an intermediary that facilitates the arrival of the vessel, clearance loading and unloading and payment for port services.
SERVICE CONTRACT
SERVICE
The regular structure of calls made by the carrier in the pickup and unloading of cargo is determined.
SEPARABLE COST
The costs that a company can assign directly to a specific business segment.
SEA WAYBILL

Transport document. The sea waybill indicates 'on board' the loading of goods and can be used in cases where the sea bill of lading is not required, i.e. there is no title deed. to receive the goods, the presentation of the sea waybill for the consignee specified in it is not required, which allows you to speed up the processing at the port of destination.

SDS

Product safety data sheet is a document included in the technical documentation for chemical products. The passport contains information on the properties, hazards of the substance and the main risks associated with its use. The safety data sheet is drawn up and registered before the goods are delivered to the market. 

The safety data sheet is indefinite and is not subject to registration. The text of the passport is drawn up in the official language of the country on the territory of which the chemical products are circulating, but if necessary, it can be translated into any language.

Synonyms - MSDS
SCRAP MATERIAL
Unavailable material that has no market value.
SALVAGE MATERIAL
Unused material that has a market value and can be sold.
SAFETY STOCK
The company conducts an inventory outside of normal requirements as a buffer against delays in receiving orders or changes in the customer’s purchase structure.
ROLLING CARGO
Cargo that is on wheels such as a truck or trailers and that can be run or towed to a ship.
RO-RO SHIP
RFM
reefer Monitoring / Plug-in Service. The service provided by the carrier to track deliveries with a certain temperature regime, including checking temperature parameters and checking equipment malfunctions. This service is used whenever
REVENUE TON

Revenue Ton - is a delivery term that describes the dimension on which the cargo is chartered. If the cargo is estimated as weight or measure, then no matter what income it brings, a ton of revenue will be considered. Weight is based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters. 1 RT = 1 ton or 1 m3.

RETURN CARGO
Cargo that allows the ship to return loaded to the port or area where its previous cargo was loaded.
RELEASE APPROVAL
Document to advise that the goods are available for further movement or action.
REEFER
Container with autonomous refrigeration unit used to transport perishable goods.
RECONSIGNMENT
The service carrier which allows the shipper to change the destination and / or the consignee after shipment reached its originally billed destination and still pay the rate from the point of departure to the final destination.
RATE BASIS POINT
The main point of shipment in the local area carriers should consider all points in the local area to provide a base point rate.
RAIL WAYBILL

Bill of lading by rail carriers for their clients.

The document used for transportation by rail. The document is prepared by the agent or the railway line, which will transport the goods, after receiving shipping instructions from the consignor. The draft railway consignment note is sent to the shipper for accepting and sending the specified conditions, after which the originals are issued.

Below you can see a list of information included in the railway bill instructions:

Synonyms - Railway invoice
PURCHASE ORDER
PTI
Pre-Trip Inspection Service. This service is offered by the carrier and implies additional verification of the temperature of containers with certain work experience to ensure that the container is in working condition and ready for transportation.
PSI

Pre Shipment Inspection - pre-shipment check of the manufactured goods for compliance with the declared requirements, quality and quantity standards. Pre-shipment inspection is effective after the end of production when at least 80% of the batch is packed. Checked in accordance with the specification, aspects such as: general, appearance, product functions, size, labeling, packaging and so on.

Synonyms - Pre Shipment Inspection
PRO-FORMA
Type of offer or offer that can be used when first negotiating the sale of goods or services. if the proforma is accepted then the terms and conditions of the pro forma may become a request.
PREPAID FREIGHT
Transportation of goods is paid by the shipper to the carrier when the goods are submitted for shipment which is not returned if the goods do not arrive as intended.