Other definitions

The number of entries in this glossary is 10.
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Term Definition

An option in cargo insurance is applied when a loss occurs and implies the participation of the Policyholder and the Beneficiary in risk.

When insurance of goods, an unconditional deductible is usually applied, which means that if a loss occurs less than the deductible, then it is not considered and not paid. If the loss is greater than the deductible, then the reimbursement will be the amount of the damage done minus the deductible. Franchise - It’s like some participation in the risk of the insured. In addition to the deductible, the policyholder must pay an insurance premium.

Tolling (from English toll "duty”) - processing of foreign raw materials with subsequent export of finished products. The tolling mechanism in the general case is the processing of foreign raw materials in compliance with the prescribed customs regime "Processing of goods in the customs territory". The application of this customs regime allows you to import raw materials and export finished products duty-free. In English, such an activity is called give and take raw material, customer owned raw materials, customer-furnished raw materials.
Synonyms - Tolling trade

A country or territory with special business conditions for foreign companies, such as low or zero taxes, simple rules of corporate reporting and management, the ability to hide the real business owners.

In this regard, offshore companies are often used for crimes: laundering criminal money, state corruption, fraudulent operations. Companies are registered in the offshore country, transferring their capital there.

In Russian law, offshore companies are called “controlled by foreign companies” and in some cases their activities are taxed. In the world there are more than 50 offshore zones.

Synonyms - offshore

All-Russian product classifiers are Russian national standards included in the “Unified System for Classification and Coding of Technical, Economic and Social Information” and designed to process product information in all areas of the national economy (primarily: economics, accounting, statistics, standardization). from two to four digits inclusive, are usually agreed with the same codes in OKVED 2 (OK 029-2014), which indicate the type of economic activity.

The All-Russian Classifier of Products by Type of Economic Activity is included in the "Unified System of Classification and Coding of Technical, Economic and Social Information" and is designed to process information about products in all areas of the national economy (primarily: economics, accounting, statistics, standardization) has the designation OK 034-2014 (CPA 2008) was developed by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia on the basis of the order of Rosstandart dated January 31.01.2014, 14 No. 01.02.2014 - since the date of introduction of the classifier on February XNUMX, XNUMX, the end date has not been set.

Official The source of information:

Introduced in place of four classifiers that have lost force:

  • OKDP (OK 004-93),
  • OKPD (OK 034-2007 (CPA 2002)),
  • Grouper (OK 002-93),
  • OKP (005-93).

OKPD 2 built on the basis of harmonization with the statistical classification of products by activity in the European economic community of 2008 of the year by transferring from the last codes (up to the sixth digit inclusive) and descriptions of the corresponding positions. There are cases for which national characteristics are reflected by changing the groupings of the European classification.

Codes OKPD 2, consist of from two to four digits inclusive, are usually agreed with the same codes in OKVED 2 (OK 029-2014), which indicates the type of economic activity.

Synonyms - Russian Classification of Product by Economic Activities
Galvanic cell

A chemical source of electric current based on the interaction of two metals and / or their oxides in an electrolyte, leading to the generation of an electric current in a closed circuit. It got its name in honor of Luigi Galvani. The conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy occurs in galvanic cells.


Latin word meaning "means of binding"

In mathematical notation Vinculum is a horizontal line used for a specific purpose. It can be either underscore above or below in a mathematical expression to indicate that the expression should be considered grouped together.

In the STAR TREK universe, the processing device at the core of every Borg ship, which puts order in chaos, processes all the thoughts and knowledge received from hundreds or thousands of onboard distribution nodes, filtering all irrelevant information, preserving all applicable scientific and biological knowledge and spreading information relating to the team.


Synonyms - Vinculum
ISO 3166

An international standard that defines the code designations of states and dependent territories, as well as basic administrative entities within states.

Consists of the following parts:

  • ISO 3166-1 - codes of states and dependent territories.
  • ISO 3166-1 The alpha-2 is a two letter system with many uses that ICANN uses to assign national top-level domain names.
  • ISO 3166-1 The alpha-3 is a three letter system.
  • ISO 3166-1 numeric is a three-digital system identical to the statistical division used in the UN.
  • ISO 3166-2 - codes of administrative entities within states (regions, states, provinces, etc.).
  • ISO 3166-3 - codes of already non-existent states (union, division, change of name, etc.).
Synonyms - ISO_3166

Global number of commercial products in a single international database of goods GS1... It is used for accounting of goods in the global supply flow, in distribution centers, retail and wholesale trade, in warehouses, in accounting and so on, to uniquely identify goods and find them in databases. A generic number can include both global and other product data.

The GTIN is 8, 12, 13 or 14 digits long, only numbers are used, letters or other symbols are not allowed.

Each of the digital schemes is built similar to previous standards and includes a company prefix, product code and check digit. The registration of numbers (barcodes) of commercial products in Russia is carried out by the Association of Automatic Identification "UNISCAN / GS1 RUS" (GS1 RUS, GS1)

Synonyms - Global Trade Item Number, GTIN

This is a special international unique code used in electronic data interchange and electronic commerce systems. With its help, you can accurately and concisely determine the location of legal entities, their functional units and physical objects - warehouses, shops, production facilities, transport units, translated as the Global Location Number or Global Identification Number.

The number consists of 13 digits. Starts with a two- or three-digit national prefix and ends with a check number. The code assigned to any enterprise should not be repeated anywhere.

In Russia for an analogue GLN can be considered OKPO, OKVED, BIK, INN, etc. codes. These codes identify businesses. Since each country has adopted its own coding systems, when preparing international commercial documents, it is necessary to use a single GLN format, since it is a universal method of identification.

Synonyms - Global Location Number

A unique identifier for chemical compounds, polymers, biological nucleotide or amino acid sequences, mixtures and alloys assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (a division of the American Chemical Society) to all substances ever mentioned in the literature.

The unique identifier is intended for greater convenience in the search for references in the literature by eliminating the problem of the possible various names of the same. At present, almost all chemical databases are searched by registration number CAS.

The CAS number is written in the form of three groups of Arabic numbers, separated by hyphens in three sections; the first part can contain up to 7 digits, the second contains two digits, the third consists of one digit and performs the function of a check character. Numbers are assigned in ascending order and do not have a predefined value. The checksum is calculated by adding the last digit of the number multiplied by 1, the second digit on the right multiplied by 2, the third multiplied by three and so on to the first digit on the left, ending with the calculation of the remainder of the division by 10. For example, CAS registration number for 7732-18- water5. The checksum is calculated as follows: 8 × 1 + 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 7 × 5 + 7 × 6 = 105; 105 mod 10 = 5.

Find information by chemical CAS number or CAS number, compound name, formula, or structure at or here

Synonyms - CAS registry numbe, CAS number, CAS #, CAS RN