ISPM No. 15 - International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures
ISPM No. XXUMX
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES
REGULATION OF WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE
International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) are prepared by the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention as part of the world policy program and technical assistance of the Organization for Food and Agriculture of the United Nations regarding plant quarantine.
Standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPMs) are accepted by contracting parties. IPPC and FAO members who are not contracting parties through the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures. ISPMs are standards, guidelines and recommendations recognized as the basis for phytosanitary measures applied by members of the World Trade Organization in the framework of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Non-Contracting Parties to the IPPC are encouraged to comply with these standards.
This standard was first adopted at the fourth session of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in March 2002, entitled Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade.
Amendments to the 1 Annex were adopted at the first session of the Commission for Phytosanitary Measures in April 2006. The first revised version was adopted at the fourth session of the Commission for Phytosanitary Measures in March-April 2009 as this standard, ISPM 15. The revised version of the 1 Annex with the corresponding changes in the 2 Annex was adopted at the 8 session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in April 2013 in April.
This standard describes phytosanitary measures that reduce the risk of introduction and spread of quarantine pests transported in international trade with wood packaging material made from untreated wood. Wood packaging material covered by this standard includes fastening wood, but does not include wooden containers made from wood, processed in such a way that it is free of pests (for example, plywood). The phytosanitary measures described in this standard are not intended for permanent protection against littering pests or other organisms.
Pests associated with wood packaging material are known to negatively impact forest health and biodiversity. The application of this standard will significantly reduce the spread of pests and, therefore, reduce their negative impact. Performing the shaping Methyl bromide is included in this standard in the event that there are no alternative treatments available only in certain situations or not in all countries, or other suitable (non-wood) packaging materials are not available. Due to the fact that methyl bromide depletes the ozone layer, the CPM Recommendation to replace or reduce the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure has been adopted (CPM, 2008). The search continues for alternative measures with a more benign impact on the environment.
Wood packaging materials unprocessed timber is a pathway for the introduction and spread of pests. Since the origin of wood packaging materials is often difficult to determine, internationally accepted measures are described to significantly reduce the risk of spread of pests. NPPOs It is recommended to take wood packaging materials to which approved measures have been applied, without additional requirements. Such wood packaging materials include lumber, but do not include recycled wood packaging materials.
The procedures for checking whether the measure has been applied endorsed by, including the use of an internationally recognized labeling, should be involved in both the exporting and the importing country. Other measures, which reached a two-way agreement, are also considered in this standard. If the wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, NPPOs may neutralize their approved manner.
Definitions of phytosanitary terms used in ISPM 15 can be found on the page (Glossary of phytosanitary terms).
Approved phytosanitary measures that significantly reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pests with wood packaging material include the use of debarked wood (with specified tolerances for bark residues) and the use of approved treatments (prescribed in Annex 1). The use of identifying markings (prescribed in Annex 2) provides easy identification of wood packaging material that has undergone approved treatments. Descriptions of approved treatments, labeling and its use are provided.
National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) of exporting and importing countries have specific obligations. Processing and labeling should always be the responsibility of the NPPO. Authorized markers should supervise treatments, use of markings and their application by appropriate manufacturers or processors (or, as a minimum, audit or analysis), and should also establish procedures for inspection or monitoring and auditing.
Special requirements are imposed on repaired or converted wood packaging material. NPPOs of importing countries should consider approved phytosanitary measures as a basis for authorizing the importation of wood packaging material without additional phytosanitary import requirements for wood packaging material, and can also check for importation if it complies with the requirements of this standard. If wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, NPPOs are also responsible for the measures taken and, as appropriate, for notification of non-compliance.
1. The basis of regulation
Wood, obtained from living trees or deadwood, may be infected by pests. Wood packaging material is often made from fresh wood that has not been processed or processed sufficiently to remove or destroy pests, and therefore remains the way for the introduction and distribution of quarantine pests. It has been proven that fastening wood represents a particularly high risk of the introduction and spread of quarantine pests. Moreover, wood packaging material is very often reused, repaired, or reworked (as described in the 4.3 section).
It can be difficult to determine the true origin of different parts of wood packaging material, which makes it difficult to establish their phytosanitary status. Therefore, with respect to wood packaging material, it is often not possible to routinely carry out a pest risk analysis to determine the need for phytosanitary measures and their scope. For this reason, this standard describes internationally accepted measures that can be applied to wood packaging material with all countries. significantly reduce the risk of introduction and spread of most quarantine pests that may be associated with this material
2. Adjustable wood packaging material
This guide covers all forms of wood packaging material that can serve as a means of spreading pests that pose a risk mainly to living trees. This includes wood packaging material such as battens, crates, packing boxes, fastening wood, trays, cable drums and spools / reels, which can be found in virtually any imported goods, including those that are not usually subjected to phytosanitary inspection.
The following materials present a fairly low risk, and for this reason they have not been covered by this standard:
wood packaging material made entirely of thin wood (no more than 6 mm thick);
wooden packaging made entirely from recycled wood material, such as laminated plywood, chipboard, oriented chipboard or veneer, which was made using glue, heat and pressure, or a combination of these methods;
barrels for wine and alcoholic beverages that were heated during the manufacturing process;
gift boxes for wine, cigars and other goods made from wood that has been recycled and / or made by a method that excludes the possibility of infection by pests;
sawdust, wood chips and wood wool;
wooden construction elements permanently attached to trucks and containers.
3. Phytosanitary measures in relation to wood packaging material
This standard sets out phytosanitary measures (including treatment) that have been approved for wood packaging material and provides for the approval of new or revised treatments.
3.1 Approved phytosanitary measures
The approved phytosanitary measures described in this standard consist of phytosanitary procedures, including processing and labeling of wood packaging material. The use of labeling eliminates the need for the use of a phytosanitary certificate, since it indicates the use of internationally recognized phytosanitary measures. All NPPOs should consider these phytosanitary measures as the basis for allowing the import of wood packaging material without special additional requirements. Phytosanitary measures other than the approved measures described in this standard require technical justification. The treatments described in 1 application considered reliably effective against most harmful to organisms living trees associated with wood packaging material used in international trade. These treatments are combined with the use of debarked wood in the manufacture of wood packaging, which also helps to reduce the likelihood of re-infection with harmful organisms for live trees. These measures were adopted on the basis of consideration:
the spectrum of pests against which they are directed;
technical and / or commercial feasibility.
There are three main steps in the production of approved wood packaging material (including fastening wood): processing, manufacturing and labeling. These actions can be performed by different performers, or one performer can perform several or all of these actions. To facilitate understanding, this standard is addressed to manufacturers (those who produce wood packaging material and can affix the label to suitably processed wood packaging material) and those who carry out the processing (to those who conduct the approved processing and can affix the label to the appropriately treated wood packaging material material).
The wood packaging material subjected to these approved measures is designated by the official marking in accordance with Annex 2. This marking consists of a special symbol used together with the codes indicating the specific country, the responsible manufacturer or the organization that carried out the processing and the type of processing performed. Hereinafter, the totality of all components of such a designation is referred to as "marking". The internationally recognized marking, which is not tied to a specific language, facilitates the process of recognizing processed wood packaging material when viewed before export, at points of entry and elsewhere.
NPPOs should consider that the marking as specified in Annex 2, the basis for resolving the import of wood packaging material without further specific requirements. For the manufacture of wood packaging material to be used peeled wood, held as one of the approved treatments specified in Annex 1. Tolerances for residues of crust are set out in Annex 1.
3.2 Approval of new or revised treatments
As new technical information becomes available, existing treatments can be revised and modified, and the CPM can approve new alternative treatments and / or wood packaging material (s). ISPM 28: 2007 provides guidance on the approval process for the IPPC processes. If any new treatment or revised scheme for the processing of wood packaging material is approved and included, the material already processed according to the conditions of the previously approved treatment and / or scheme will not need to be re-processed or re-marked.
3.3 Alternative bilateral agreements
In addition to the measures set out in Annex 1 NPPOs may recognize and other measures through bilateral agreements with trading partners. In such cases, the marking contained in Annex 2, should not be used unless all requirements of this standard.
4. The responsibility of the NPPO
In order to prevent the introduction and spread of pests, exporting and importing contracting parties and their NPPOs assume certain liabilities (as defined in Articles I, IV and VII of the IPPC). The following are specific obligations in connection with the application of this standard.
4.1 Regulatory Issues
Processing and labeling (and / or associated systems) should always be within the competence of the NPPO. NPPOs permitting the use of this marking are responsible for ensuring that all systems authorized and approved for the implementation of this standard comply with all necessary requirements set out in this standard, and that the wood packaging material (or wood from which it is intended to make wood Packaging material) having the marking has been processed and / or manufactured in accordance with this standard. The duties of the NPPO include:
authorization, registration and accreditation, as appropriate;
control over processing and labeling systems to verify compliance (additional information regarding the related responsibilities is provided in ISPM 7: 1997);
inspection, establishment of verification procedures and, if necessary, audit (additional information is given in ISPM 23: 2005).
The NPPO should supervise (or, as a minimum, audit or analysis) for carrying out treatments, as well as to give, where appropriate, authorize the use and allocation of the mark. Processing should be carried out prior to the marking in order to prevent marking presence in poorly or incorrectly treated wood packaging material.
4.2 application and use of marking
Installed kinds of markings applied to wood packaging material treated in accordance with this standard shall comply with the requirements set out in Annex 2.
4.3 requirements for processing and labeling for the recycled, refurbished or converted wood packaging material
NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material bearing the mark described in Annex 2, repaired or altered, are responsible for ensuring full compliance with this standard systems related to export of such wood packaging material, as well as for monitoring compliance.
4.3.1 Reuse of wood packaging material
A unit of wood packaging material treated and marked in accordance with this standard, which has not been repaired, do not alter or otherwise altered does not require re-treatment or marking throughout the useful life of the unit.
4.3.2 Renovated wood packaging material
Repaired wood packaging material is considered to be a wood packaging material in which up to one third of the elements have been removed and replaced. In the event that the marked wood packaging material is to be repaired, the NPPO should ensure that only wood treated in accordance with this standard or wood products made from treated wood is used for this repair (see section 2.1). If the treated wood is used for repair, each added element must be marked separately in accordance with this standard.
The presence on wood packaging material, several markings, can create problems in determining the origin of this wood packaging material if it detects pests. It is recommended that the NPPOs of countries where the wood packaging material is repaired limit the number of different markings that may appear on one unit of wood packaging material. In this regard, the NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material is being repaired may require that the repaired wood packaging material has been erased prior to marking, the unit has been re-processed in accordance with annex 1, and then marked in accordance with annex 2. If methyl bromide is used for re-treatment, the information contained in the CPM Recommendation should be taken into account Replacement or reduction of methyl bromide use as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008).
If there is any doubt that all elements of a repaired wood packaging unit have been processed in accordance with this standard, or the origin of this unit of wood packaging material or its components is difficult to establish, the NPPOs of countries where wood packaging material is being repaired should require that this repaired The wood packaging material has been re-processed, destroyed or otherwise not allowed to move in international trade as a ve wood packaging material according to the present standard. In the case of re-treatment, all previously marked markings must be permanently destroyed (for example, by painting or removing). After re-treatment, the marking must be repainted in accordance with this standard.
4.3.3 Converted wood packaging material
If replaced by more than one third element unit of wood packaging material, this unit is considered to be reworked. During this process, the various elements (extra alteration if necessary) may be combined and then re-assembled into the wood packaging material for its future use. Converted wood packaging material may result include both new and previously used components. Any previously marking must be permanently destroyed in the converted wood packaging material (for example, by painting or removal). Converted wood packaging material to be reprocessed, after which labeling should be applied anew in accordance with this standard.
If the goods in transit, contain wood packaging material does not meet the requirements of this standard, NPPOs of the transit countries have the right to require the application of measures designed to ensure that no unacceptable risks from this wood packaging material. More detailed guidance on the organization of transit are listed in ISPM 25: 2006.
4.5 procedures at import
Since wood packaging materials are present in most shipments of goods, including those that are not themselves normally subject to phytosanitary control, it is important for the NPPO to cooperate with organizations that are not usually involved in verifying compliance with phytosanitary import requirements. For example, cooperation with customs services and other interested agencies and organizations will help the NPPO to obtain information on the availability of wood packaging material. This is important in order to effectively identify possible inconsistencies in wood packaging material with the requirements of this standard.
4.6 Phytosanitary measures to the point of entry for non-compliance requirements
Relevant information regarding the non-compliance and emergency action is contained in sections on 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 20 ISPM: ISPM 2004 and 13: 2001. Taking into account the frequent re-use of wood packaging material, NPPOs should take into account that revealed a discrepancy may occur soon in the country of production, repair or alteration than in the exporting country or the transit country.
In the event that wood packaging material does not have the required labeling, or the identification of pests indicates a possible inefficiency of the treatment, the NPPO should react accordingly and, if necessary, be taken emergency action... Such an action may be the delay of the cargo when the situation is clarified, then, if necessary, the removal of inappropriate material, processing3, destruction (or other reliable disposal) or transshipment. Additional examples of acceptable courses of action are given in Appendix 1. For any emergency action taken, the principle of minimum exposure must be followed, and the shipment itself must be distinguished from the accompanying wood packaging material. In addition, if urgent action is required and the NPPO uses methyl bromide, the relevant aspects of the CPM Recommendation Replace or reduce the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure should be followed (CPM, 2008).
In cases of detection of living pests, the NPPO of the importing country should notify the exporting country accordingly, or, if possible, the country of manufacture. Where a unit of wood packaging material has more than one marking, the NPPO should attempt to determine the origin of the non-conforming parts before the notification of non-compliance is sent. It is also welcomed to send the NPPO notifications in the absence of marking and other inconsistencies. Taking into account the provisions of section 4.3.2, it should be noted that the presence of multiple markings on one unit of wood packaging material is not a non-fulfillment of requirements.