Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade - the application of ISPM 1 15

Approved processing associated with wood packaging material

Approved treatments may be applied to the packaging material units wood or pieces of wood, from which wood packaging materials must be made.
The use of debarked wood
Regardless of the type of processing used wood packaging material to be made from debarked wood. According to this standard, any number of visually separate and clearly distinct small areas of bark may remain if they are:

  • have a width of less than 3 cm (regardless of their length), or
  • have a width of more than 3 cm with a total surface area of ​​a single area of ​​bark less than 50 square centimeters.

For methyl bromide treatment, bark removal must be carried out prior to treatment, since the presence of bark on wood may affect the processing efficiency. During heat treatment, bark removal can be carried out both before and after treatment. If the size limit is specified for a particular type of heat treatment (for example, dielectric heating), the whole bark should be taken into account in the measurement.

To achieve the required processing parameters, various sources of energy or its production processes can be used. For example, regular drying in superheated steam, chamber drying, chemical pressure impregnation with thermal effects and dielectric heating (microwave, in the field of high frequency currents) can be considered as heat treatments, provided that they comply with all the parameters of heat treatment specified in this standard.
NPPOs must take the necessary steps for the processors to monitor the processing temperature in the place that is the coldest, that is, in the place in the wood that takes the most time to reach the set temperature so that the set temperature is maintained throughout the batch treated wood. The location of the coldest point of the wood may vary depending on the energy source or the process used, the moisture content and the initial temperature distribution in the wood.

When using dielectric heating of the coldest part of the timber during processing, usually a surface. In some situations (for example, dielectric heating frozen large timber until its defrosting), the coldest part of the timber may be heart.

Heat treatment using a gas-steam or dry heating chamber (treatment code for marking: NT)

When using the chamber heat treatment technology, the fundamental requirement is to achieve a minimum temperature of 56 °C continuously for at least 30 minutes throughout the entire thickness of the wood (including the core).

This temperature can be measured by placing temperature sensors in the core of the wood. In addition, when using drying chambers or chambers for other heat treatments, treatment modes can be developed based on a series of test treatments, during which the main temperature of the wood is measured in various places in the heat treatment chamber and correlated with the air temperature in the chamber, taking into account the moisture content in the wood and other essential parameters (such as the type and thickness of wood, air flow intensity and humidity). Test series must demonstrate that the minimum temperature 56C is maintained continuously for at least 30 minutes throughout the wood.

processing modes must be specified or approved by the NPPO.
Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to meet the requirements of thermal cameras for processing.

  • Heat treatment chambers are sealed and have good thermal insulation, including insulation on the floor.
  • Heat chambers are designed in such a way that air flow can circulate around and inside the stack of wood. Woodbeing treated, is located in the chamber in such a way as to ensure sufficient air flow around the pile of wood and inside it.
  • If necessary, air deflectors and inter-row gaskets inside the stack are used to ensure optimal air flow in the heat chamber.
  • During processing, fans are used to circulate air, and the air flow from these fans is sufficient to maintain the temperature inside the wood at a given level for the required time.
  • The coldest place in the chamber is determined at each load, and that is where the temperature sensors are located: either in the wood or in the chamber.
  • If the processing is monitored by the temperature sensors placed in the wood, at least two sensors are recommended. These temperature sensors should be able to measure the temperature of the core of the wood. The use of multiple temperature sensors ensures that any process temperature sensor failure is detected during the process. Temperature sensors are inserted into the core of the wood at a distance of at least 30 cm from the edge. For shorter boards or pallet boxes, temperature sensors are also placed in a piece of wood of the largest size so as to provide a temperature measurement in the core. All holes drilled in wood to accommodate temperature sensors should be sealed with appropriate material to prevent interference with temperature measurements associated with convection or heat conduction. Special attention should be paid to external exposure to wood, such as nails or metal inserts, which can lead to incorrect measurement.
  • If the treatment mode is based on monitoring the air temperature in the chamber and is used to process different types of wood (for example, depending on the species and size), the type, moisture content and thickness of the wood to be treated should be taken into account. In accordance with the processing mode, it is recommended to use at least two temperature sensors to monitor the air temperature in the chamber when processing wooden containers.
  • If the air flow in the chamber changes regularly during processing, a larger number of temperature sensors may be needed to take into account a possible change in the coldest place in the chamber.
  • Temperature sensors and data logging equipment are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions at intervals set by the NPPO.

Heat treatment using dielectric heating (treatment code for marking: DH)

When using dielectric heating (e.g., microwave) wood packaging material consisting of a timber not exceeding 20 sm4 as measured by the smallest size, or a stack must be heated to achieve a minimum temperature 60C continuously for 1 minutes throughout the thickness of the wood (including surface). The set temperature must be reached within minutes after the start 30 obrabotki.5.
processing modes must be specified or approved by the NPPO.
Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to dielectric heating chamber meet the requirements for processing.

  • Regardless of whether the treatment is carried out with dielectric heating as a batch process or as a continuous (conveyor) process, the process is monitored in wood, where the temperature is most likely to be the coldest (usually on the surface) to maintain the desired temperature. When measuring temperature, it is recommended to use at least two temperature sensors to ensure detection of any errors of the temperature sensor.
  • The handler initially confirms that the temperature of the wood reaches or exceeds 60C continuously for 1 minutes throughout the thickness of the wood (including its surface).
  • For wood thicker than 5, see dielectric heating with a frequency of 2,45 GHz should be provided with double-sided heaters or several waveguides to distribute microwave energy and ensure uniform heating.
  • Temperature sensors and data logging equipment are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions at intervals set by the NPPO.
  • For audit purposes, processors store heat treatments and calibrations for a period of time determined by the NPPO.

Methyl bromide treatment (treatment code for marking: MB)

NPPOs are encouraged to promote the use of alternative treatments approved in this standard. The use of methyl bromide should be based on the recommendation of the FMC to replace or reduce the use of methyl bromide as a phytosanitary measure (CPM, 2008).

Wood packing material consisting of wood pieces exceeding 20 cm. As measured by the smallest size, should not be treated with methyl bromide.
Fumigation wood packaging material with methyl bromide should be carried out in accordance with the scheme specified or approved by the NPPO and allowing the minimum amount of concentration products to be achieved at a time of 7 (KV) for 24 hours at a temperature and with a final residual concentration shown in Table 1. This KV value should be achieved throughout the wood, including its core, although concentrations are measured in the surrounding atmosphere. The minimum temperature of wood and its surrounding atmosphere must be at least 10 C, and the minimum exposure time must be at least 24 hours. Gas concentration monitoring should be carried out in 2, 4 and 24 hours from the start of treatment. In the case of a longer exposure time and a lower concentration, additional measurements of the gas concentration should be recorded at the end of fumigation.
If HF is not achieved through 24 hours, you should take corrective action to ensure the achievement of HF; for example, to start treatment again or extend the processing time up to 2 hours without further addition of methyl bromide to achieve the desired HF.

Handlers must be approved by the NPPO. NPPOs should consider the following factors, compliance with which may be required in order to fumigation with methyl bromide consistent with the requirements for processing.

  • During the gas distribution phase during fumigation, fans are used in the prescribed manner to ensure uniform penetration; they should be placed in such a way as to ensure the rapid and efficient distribution of the fumigant in the fumigated room (preferably within the first hour of use).
  • Fumigated rooms should not be loaded by more than 80% of their volume.
  • Fumigated rooms should be well sealed and, as far as possible, gas-tight. If it is necessary to carry out fumigation under a film, then the latter should be made of a gas-tight material and securely sealed at the seams and at the floor level.
  • The floor at the fumigation site must be impermeable to the fumigant; if it is permeable, a gas-tight coating is laid on it.
  • The use of methyl bromide through an evaporator (“hot aeration”) is recommended to completely evaporate the fumigant when it enters the fumigated room.
  • Methyl bromide treatment of wood packaging material exceeding 20, as measured by the smallest dimension, should not be carried out. For this reason, a separator for stacks of wood packaging material may be needed to ensure the required circulation and penetration of methyl bromide.
  • The concentration of methyl bromide in the airspace is always measured at the place furthest from the gas injection point, as well as at other places throughout the room (for example, in the front lower part, in the central middle part, and in the rear upper part) to confirm that uniform gas distribution. The start of processing is counted when a uniform distribution is reached.
  • When calculating methyl bromide dosage, it is necessary to take into account the presence of compensation for any gas mixtures (for example, 2% chloropicrin) to ensure that the total amount of methyl bromide used is in accordance with the required dosage standards.
  • Initial dosage rates and procedures for handling the drug after treatment should take into account the possibility of the absorption of methyl bromide by treated wood packaging material or items used with it (for example, polystyrene boxes).
  • To calculate the dose of methyl bromide, the measured or expected temperature of the product or ambient air is used immediately before or during processing (one that is lower).
  • Wood packaging material to be fumigated should not be wrapped or covered with a fumigant impermeable material.
  • Temperature sensors and gas concentrations, as well as data recording equipment, are calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions at intervals determined by the NPPO.
  • For auditing purposes, handlers keep processing data on methyl bromide and calibrations for a period of time determined by the NPPO.

Adoption of alternative treatments and revision schemes approved treatments

As new technical information becomes available, existing treatments may be reviewed and modified and alternative treatments or new treatment schemes for wood packaging material may be approved by the CPM. If a new treatment or revised treatment scheme is approved for wood packaging material and is included in this ISPM, then the material already processed under the conditions of the previously approved treatment and / or scheme does not need to be reprocessed or re-labeled.
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